Sunday, 8 November 2020

Next generation battery technology


 

WHAT IS IT?

In lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, energy storage and release is provided by the movement of lithium ions from the positive to the negative electrode back and forth via the electrolyte. In this technology, the positive electrode acts as the initial lithium source and the negative electrode as the host for lithium. Several chemistries are gathered under the name of Li-ion batteries, as the result of decades of selection and optimization close to perfection of positive and negative active materials. Lithiated metal oxides or phosphates are the most common material used as present positive materials. Graphite, but also graphite/silicon or lithiated titanium oxides are used as negative materials.

WHAT ARE ITS ADVANTAGES?

Today, among all the state-of-the-art storage technologies, Li-ion battery technology allows the highest level of energy density. Performances such as fast charge or temperature operating window (-50°C up to 125°C) can be fine-tuned by the large choice of cell design and chemistries. Furthermore, Li-ion batteries display additional advantages such as very low self-discharge and very long lifetime and cycling performances, typically thousands of charging/discharging cycles.

WHEN CAN WE EXPECT IT?

New generation of advanced Li-ion batteries is expected to be deployed before the first generation of solid-state batteries. They’ll be ideal for use in applications such as Energy Storage Systems for renewables and transportation (marine, railways, aviation and off road mobility) where high energy, high power and safety is mandatory.

Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are the current standard for EVs, yet they have short life cycles and have a history of overheating.

 “Recent research around lithium-based chemistries has revolved around using different lithium-based batteries to provide better fire resistance, quicker charges, and longer life spans,” says James Hodgson, Principal Analyst at ABI Research. However, while the Li-ion battery will continue to progress, it will be solid-state and lithium-silicon technologies that will be the real EVB game changer.

Numerous investments from OEMs such as Volkswagen, BMW Group, and Daimler, have been made in solid-state technology and lithium-silicon technology companies, including QuantumScape, Solid Power, Enevate and Sila Nanotechnologies. These investments highlight how important these technologies will be for the future of EVBs.

Saturday, 7 November 2020

EV Charger Market 2020-2027

 The global electric vehicle charger market was valued at $3.8 billion in 2019, and is projected to reach $25.5 billion by 2027, registering a CAGR of 26.8% from 2020 to 2027.

Factors such as government regulations to limit environment pollution, increase in market penetration of electric vehicles, and surge in government initiatives for development of electric vehicle charging infrastructure drive the growth of the electric vehicle charger market. However, limited number of EV charging stations and lack of standardization of EV charging are anticipated to hamper the market growth. Further, surge in demand for luxury and feature enabled vehicles and wireless charging for electric vehicles are expected to create numerous opportunities for EV chargers market expansion.



Electric vehicle charging infrastructure is vital for the mass adoption of electric vehicles. Several government initiatives have been undertaken to provide EV charging stations across the world. For instance, Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI) has planned to deploy more than 200 EV charging stations across the country. In addition, Tata Power (India) is supporting the Indian Government's 'National electric mobility mission' wherein Tata power has established the first set of Electric Vehicle charging stations in Mumbai (India) for India's growing EV ecosystem, and provide customers access to energy-efficient options with ease. This in turn is expected to drive the growth of the electric vehicle charger market.


Friday, 6 November 2020

How electric cars are charged

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT WAYS TO CHARGE EVS?

There are 2 primary ways to charge Mahindra EVs:

  • Normal Charge: Comes with a port installed at home/work place or from a charging station. Time taken for a complete charge depends on the drive train capacity.
  • Quick Charge: Innovative charging technology with the Quick Charge charges the car completely in just 60 minutes. But the time taken to charge each car varies according to the model.



HOW DO I CHARGE THE CAR?

It is as easy as charging any of your other technology devices. All you have to do is plug the vehicle into any of the charge points available to you.

To know the voltage and ampere requirements for each product, click on the images below:

  • The time it takes to charge an electric car can be as little as 30 minutes or more than 12 hours. This depends on the size of the battery and the speed of the charging point.
  • A typical electric car (60kWh battery) takes just under 8 hours to charge from empty-to-full with a 7kW charging point.
  • Most drivers top up charge rather than waiting for their battery to recharge from empty-to-full.
  • For many electric cars, you can add up to 100 miles of range in ~35 minutes with a 50kW rapid charger.
  • The bigger your car’s battery and the slower the charging point, the longer it takes to charge from empty to full. 

What is smart EV charging?
Smart EV charging or intelligent charging refers to a system where an electric vehicle and a charging device share a data connection, and the charging device shares a data connection with a charging operator.

As opposed to traditional (or dumb) charging devices that aren’t connected to the cloud, smart charging allows the charging station owner to monitor, manage, and restrict the use of their devices remotely to optimize energy consumption.

How do smart EV charging stations work?
Smart EV charging is powered by an intelligent back-end solution that brings real-time data from connected charging devices and charging events to the charging station owner’s fingertips.

As stations are connected to the cloud, they can be managed based on various signals: such as fickle energy production, local electricity consumption, amount of other vehicles being charged or electrical devices being used on a nearby premise. In order to create a more sustainable energy system based on renewable energy sources, EV charging has to be smart.

What is top up charging?
Most electric car drivers plug-in to charge whenever they park, be it at home overnight or during the day at the supermarket, gym or their workplace. This is called top up charging.

  • Instead of letting the battery run empty and waiting while it fully recharges, drivers make use of the time their car is parked (which is about 95% of the time) to keep the battery topped up.
  • Public and workplace charging points typically range from 7kW to 22kW, making them ideal for top up charging.
  • Combining daytime top-up charging with overnight charging at home is an effective way to keep your electric car charged and ready to go.

Thursday, 5 November 2020

EV charging station every 25 km

 The types of EV chargers that will be mandatory at each charging station make the latest EoI distinct from the earlier one. Successful bidders will have to install CCS 2 and CHAdeMO chargers in addition to Bharat Chargers.



A CCS 2 fast charger earmarked for the programme (minimum 50 kW) can fully charge the Tata Nexon EV or a Hyundai Kona EV, for instance, in about 60 mins. CCS 2 is the most favoured charger in India with every electric car being compatible with it.

The EOI also gives interested parties the option to set up a CHAdeMO (minimum 50 kW) charger. CHAdeMO chargers are favoured by Japanese car manufacturers and powers models such as the Nissan Leaf and Honda Fit. No electric car in India is compatible with CHAdeMO.

One Bharat Charger DC-001 (15kW) is also to be installed with either CCS 2 or a CHAdeMO charger. Bharat AC-001 (10kW) and Type 2 AC (22kW) have been kept as optional chargers for the bidders.

“The proposed charging stations can start their operations with the minimum number of chargers to cater to the initial requirements and can add more,” said the EOI.

An expression of interest (EoI) invitation put out by the government states its plans to have one charging station every 25 km to facilitate faster adoption of electric vehicles.

Wednesday, 4 November 2020

EV Chargers in India

 India has embarked on an ambitious program to introduce EV (Electric Vehicle) in a big way to transform the entire transport sector. Given this stated objective to decarbonise the whole transport sector, VerdeMobility, a unit of System level Solutions, has joined hands with one of the largest operators of Sigfox, iWire Technologies, to develop the world’s first Sigfox enabled, Electric Vehicle Charging Stations.

It is the first of its kind low-cost EV charging solutions manufactured in India. The different product variants can be used for personal or commercial purposes, drawing power from the grid or solar systems. With a mobile app that allows the vehicle owner to find the nearest available charging station, make payments based on charge and online, this unique machine is the ‘thing’ every Government, Company with fleets, Mall owners, petrol pumps, need to implement. Both companies aim to manufacture chargers in India and supply solutions across the globe. 


quantum dot solar cell


 

A novel technology that can improve the efficiency of quantum dot solar cells to 11.53% has been unveiled. Published in the February 2020 issue of Advanced Energy Materials, it has been evaluated as a study that solved the challenges posed by the generation of electric currents from sunlight by solar cells by enhancing the hole extraction.

A research team, led by Professor Sung-Yeon Jang in the School of Energy and Chemical Engineering at UNIST has developed a photovoltaic device that maximizes the performance of quantum dot solar cells by using organic polymers.

Solar cells use a characteristic of which electrons and holes are generated in the absorber layer. The free free electrons and hole then move through the cell, creating and filling in holes. It is this movement of electrons and holes that generate electricity. Therefore, creating multiple electron-hole pairs and transporting them are an important consideration in the design of efficient solar cells.

Generally, quantum dot solar cells combine electron-rich quantum dots (n-type CQDs) and hole-rich quantum dots (p-type QDs). In this work, the research team developed organic π‐conjugated polymer (π‐CP) based HTMs, which can achieve performance superior to that of state‐of‐the‐art HTM, p‐type CQDs. The molecular engineering of the π‐CPs alters their optoelectronic properties, and the charge generation and collection in colloidal quantum dot solar cells (CQDSCs), using them are substantially improved.

As a result, the research team succeeded in achieving power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 11.53% with decent air‐storage stability. This is the highest reported PCE among CQDSCs using organic HTMs, and even higher than the reported best solid‐state ligand exchange‐free CQDSC using pCQD‐HTM. "From the viewpoint of device processing, device fabrication does not require any solid‐state ligand exchange step or layer‐by‐layer deposition process, which is favorable for exploiting commercial processing techniques," noted the research team.

Tuesday, 3 November 2020

Solar Cells and Modules Industry


The pandemic has therefore provided an opportune time to step-up the focus on renewable energy. Interestingly, renewable energy has emerged to be the most pandemic resilient energy source. While coal fired power plants suffered from disruptions in coal mining & coal transport, renewables like wind and energy helped mitigate risk of power interruptions. Utility-scale solar has proved its cost resilience during the pandemic at a time when prices of coal-fired power spiked, hit by high fixed costs and low electricity demand. Investments & government funding commitments in renewable energy is poised to grow stronger in the post COVID-19 period.

Solar cells or photovoltaic cells are defined as individual units of small silicon coated plates made of glass, plastic and other materials, which when exposed to sunlight, convert light energy into electricity at the basic atomic level.

The solar cell is chiefly distinguished by its conversion efficiency measured as percentage of incident power translated to power. Silicon solar cells comprise of amorphous, single crystal, and polycrystalline, as well as solar cells made from other materials such as copper indium diselenide, and cadmium telluride. 

The world market for solar cells and modules is on a growth path, supported by the growing demand for electricity, rising investments in the renewable energy sector, and favorable government policies globally which are encouraging the deployment of solar-based systems.

Solar Cell Modules Market: Overview

  1. Solar cell modules can be used individually, or several can be connected to form arrays. They dare typically rated between 50W and 350W. One or more arrays are connected to the electrical grid as part of a complete photovoltaic system.
  2. Solar cell modules are made from polycrystalline silicon as well as new generations of thin-film solar cell technology. They provide various options to residential, commercial, and industrial sectors to meet their solar energy production requirements.

Key Drivers of Solar Cell Modules Market

  • Various policies enacted by governments to support the use of solar systems are anticipated to drive the global solar cell modules market. Implementation of stringent governmental regulations to limit environmental impact is expected to propel the use of renewable energy sources. This is estimated to boost the usage of solar cell modules in solar panels. Various schemes by governments, including tax benefits, subsidies, net metering, financial assistance, and low import duty and feed in tariff, are projected to drive the solar cell modules market.
  • Rise in number of residential energy storage systems with solar PV charging panels is driving the solar cell industry. This, in turn, is propelling the solar cell modules market.
  • Increase in demand for decentralized energy generation systems in developing countries is likely to augment the penetration of solar energy during the forecast period. More than 1 billion global population has zero or poor access to electricity. Initiatives toward off-grid electrification integrated with solar PV systems are expected boost the solar cell modules market.

Key Market Segment

Silicon wafer segment is expected to hold the large share of the global solar cell modules market, owing to abundant raw material availability and high efficiencies offered vis-à-vis other technologies. The multicrystalline silicon cells segment is expected to expand at a rapid pace due to technological simplicity related to the production process. This leads to lower product cost compared to its counterparts. Increase in demand for multicrystalline silicon cells in residential and commercial applications owing to lower initial investments as well as superior efficiency is projected to drive the demand for multicrystalline silicon cells.

Indian solar growth

Introduction

Indian renewable energy sector is the fourth most attractive renewable energy market in the world. India is ranked fourth in wind power, fifth in solar power and fifth in renewable power installed capacity as of 2018.


Market Size

As of August 31, 2020, installed renewable energy capacity stood at 88.79 GW, of which solar and wind comprised 35.73 GW and 37.99 GW, respectively. Biomass and small hydro power constituted 10.14 GW and 4.73 GW, respectively.

Investments/ Developments

According to the data released by Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), FDI inflow in the Indian non-conventional energy sector stood at US$ 9.22 billion between April 2000 and March 2020.

Government initiatives

Some initiatives by Government of India to boost India’s renewable energy sector are as follows:

  • In August 2020, the government announced plans to offer land near its ports to companies for building solar equipment factories.
  • India plans to add 30 GW of renewable energy capacity along a desert on its western border such as Gujarat and Rajasthan.
  • A new Hydropower policy for 2018–28 was drafted for the growth of hydro projects in the country.
  • The Government of India has announced plans to implement a US$ 238 million National Mission on advanced ultra-supercritical technologies for cleaner coal utilisation.
  • The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has decided to provide custom and excise duty benefits to the solar rooftop sector, which will lower the cost of setting up as well as generate power, thus boosting growth.
  • Indian Railways is taking increased efforts through sustained energy efficient measures and maximum use of clean fuel to cut down emission level by 33% by 2030.

It is expected that by 2040, around 49% of the total electricity will be generated by renewable energy as more efficient batteries will be used to store electricity, which will further cut the solar energy cost by 66% as compared to the current cost. Use of renewables in place of coal will save India Rs 54,000 crore (US$ 8.43 billion) annually. Renewable energy will account for 55% of the total installed power capacity by 2030.

The Right Time for Growth

Solar energy can successfully bridge India’s energy demand-supply gap in the future. But, there are a few challenges that need to be addresses to see the golden dawn. More support to the domestic manufacturer, creating industrial eco-space to lower the cost of production, developing an efficient financing infrastructure, investing in R&D and consumer awareness can overcome challenges in the solar sector and encourage mass adaptation of technology. In light of incoming investment, increasing fossil fuel prices, and decreasing module prices, India is standing at the most opportune moment that can lead its growth to great heights.


Monday, 2 November 2020

The solar industry in India

 


The country's solar industry is showing signs of recovery with increased activity compared to the previous quarter while 2020 worst years for solar in India as COVID-19 took a heavy toll on the industry, the industry still has a long way to go.

However, the market is almost back on its feet, and the mood is upbeat as the industry heads to 2021 - one of the best years foretasted for the sector," said Raj Prabhu, CEO of Mercom Capital Group.

India, the third-largest solar market in the world, India has witnessed a dip in terms of capacity addition, which fell from 9.6 gigawatt (GW) in 2017 to 8.3 GW in 2018, indicating a slowdown of 16 per cent. 

Gradually India is becoming a favorite investment destination for both local and global players. Today Indian economy has the second-fastest rate of increase in GDP in the world - 7.1%. The country accounts for one thirds of the world's population without access to electricity. The situation arises despite several initiatives and policies to support poor households. 

Although the country is rich in coal and abundantly endowed with renewable energy in the form of solar, wind, hydro and bio-energy, India has very small hydrocarbon reserves (0.4% of the world's total). Being a net importer of energy, more than 35% of the country's primary energy needs are ensured through import.

The potential customers of Solar Energy installation fall into these categories:

  • Residential clusters or the "colonies" in India. There is a strong sense of community among the colonies of urban and suburban.
  • Business office complexes - Companies such as IBM, EMC, Intel, Pfizer, etc. have built immense office complexes in the last 5-8 years that house
  • Thousands of employees and huge arrays of power-hungry computer equipment.
  • Rural townships and villages - it is an immense market and would typically be government-funded or non-profit funded installations.
  • Individual Residences are good significant number of private citizens who are in a position to afford solar power installations e.g. being "green."
  • Large government power production facilities - on 1- to 5-MW power plant facilities as well as its larger goals for upgrading India's overall power production.
  • Water-pumping is unpredictable and inconsistent costs of Monsoon-based farming are a detriment to farmers in these areas..


DISCLAIMER: The Indian Solar Energy sector has been growing rapidly, in the past few years. 

Sunday, 1 November 2020

one kilowatt of solar system costs less than a premium mobile phone

 


"We are encouraging rooftop solar, because, the its opportunities to creates jobs, when compared with utility scale solar. whole eco-system of suppliers, manufacturers of modules, structures, inverters and more have adapted to the business opportunity." - says Expert at Institute of Solar Technology. 

Solar Adoption Experience For Consumers -

Solar is not only environmentally responsible, but the investment too breaks-even within 3 to 4 years. The system yields high returns on investment and is commercially viable.

with the help of net-metering, the power supply is uninterrupted which in turn reduces the cost of the overall system in the longer run.

one kilowatt of solar system costs less than a premium mobile phone and in addition, it’s an investment into green energy and the saving in electricity bill continues for 25 years.

Many companies offering to end consumers include both loans with 12-84 EMIs as well as PPA (Power Purchase Agreement). They have deployed both own and 3rd party investors money till date.  

It is commercially viable and environmentally responsible. The market size and opportunity in India is enormous, and the adoption of solar energy is going to grow exponentially. Solar ecosystem in India is evolving fast and is expected to scale up in both distributed and land- mount space. 


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